Mathematical model-based redesign of chickpea harvester reel
Aim of study: This paper presents a mathematical modeling approach to redesign the reels of chickpea harvesters for harvest efficiency.
Area of study: A prototype chickpea harvester was designed and evaluated on the Dooshan farm of the University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
Material and methods: The strategy used for reducing harvesting losses derived from the dynamic study of the reel applied to the chickpea harvester. The machine was designed such that bats of a power take-off (PTO)-powered reel, in conjunction with passive fingers, harvest pods from anchored plants and throw the pods into a hopper. The trochoid trajectory of the reel bats concerning reel kinematic index, and plant height and spacing was determined for redesigning the reel.
Main results: This kinematic design allowed an estimation of the reel orientation at the time of impact. The experimentally validated model offers an accurate and low computational cost method to redesign harvester reels.
Research highlights: The new chickpea harvester implemented with a four fixed-bat reel, a height of 40 cm above the ground for the reel axis, and featuring a kinematic index of 2.4 was capable of harvesting pods with harvesting efficiency of over 70%; a significant improvement in harvesting performance.
Ahmadi K, 2016. Agricultural Statistics. Iranian Ministry of Agriculture Jihad, Deputy of Planning and Economic, Center for Information and Communication. https://amar.maj.ir/ [In Farsi]
Aravind KR, Raja P, Pérez Ruiz M, 2017. Task-based agricultural mobile robots in arable farming: A review. Span J Agric Res 15 (1): e02R01. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2017151-9573
Awsairbar, 2019. Airbar worldwide solutions. https://www.awsairbar.com/
Bansal R, Sakr B, 1992. Development of a vertical conveyor reaper for harvesting chickpeas and lentils in Morocco. Appl Eng Agr 8 (4): 425-428. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.26087
Beard JE, Wright ME, Mailander M, Miller M, 1992. Effects of design parameters on geared two-link mechanisms. Mech Mach Theor 27 (6): 635-644. https://doi.org/10.1016/0094-114X(92)90063-N
Behroozi M, Huang B, 2002. Design and development of chickpea combine. Ama-Agr Mech Asia AF 33 (1): 35-38.
Biso GmbH, 2019. 3D Varioflex. www.biso.at.
Carballido J, Rodríguez-Lizana A, Agüera J, Pérez-Ruiz M, 2013. Field sprayer for inter and intra-row weed control: performance and labor savings. Span J Agric Res 11 (3): 642-651. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2013113-3812
Dhimate AS, Dogra B, Dogra R, Reddy BS, Srinivas I, Adake R, 2018. Mechanization in Chickpea Cultivation-Current Scenario and Scope. Agr Eng Today 42 (3): 1-11.
Duckfootparts, 2018. Clears the cutter bar to decrease header loss. https://duckfootparts.ca/
FAO, 2016. International year of pulses (IYP). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/pulses-2016/en/
Fleury D, 2015. Chickpea harvest management. Saskatchewan pulse growers. https://saskpulse.com/files/general/150729_CHICKPEA_harvest_management.pdf
Golpira H, 2009. Determining some mechanical properties of chickpea to use in the design of its harvesting machines. Agri Sci 19 (2): 24-33. [In Farsi].
Golpira H, 2013. Conceptual design of a chickpea harvesting header. Span J Agric Res 11 (3): 635-641. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2013113-3728
Golpira H, Tavakoli T, Baerdemaeker J, 2013. Design and development of a chickpea stripper harvester. Span J Agric Res 11 (4): 929-934. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2013114-3393
Golpira H, 2015. Redesign and evaluation of a chickpea harvester. J Biosyst Eng 40 (2): 102-109. https://doi.org/10.5307/JBE.2015.40.2.102
Golpira H, Golpîra H, 2017. Soft simulator for redesigning of a chickpea harvester header. Comput Electron Agric 135: 252-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2017.02.018
Grossman JD, Rice KJ, 2012. Evolution of root plasticity responses to variation in soil nutrient distribution and concentration. Evol Appl 5 (8): 850-857. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2012.00263.x
Haddad N, Salkini A, Jagatheeswaran P, Snobar B, 1988. Methods of harvesting pulse crops. In: World crops: Cool season food legumes. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2764-3_31
Haffar L, Singh KB, Birbari W, 1991. Assessment of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) grain quality and losses in direct combine harvesting. T ASAE 34 (1): 9-13. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.31615
Hirai Y, Inoue E, Mori K, Hashiguchi K, 2002a. Investigation of mechanical interaction between a combine harvester reel and crop stalks. Biosyst Eng 83 (3): 307-317.
Hirai Y, Inoue E, Mori K, Hashiguchi K, 2002b. Analysis of reaction forces and posture of a bunch of crop stalks during reel operations of a combine harvester. Agr Eng Int: the CIGR Ejournal IV, FP 02 002.
Hirai Y, Inoue E, Mori K, 2004. Application of a quasi-static stalk bending analysis to the dynamic response of rice and wheat stalks gathered by a combine harvester reel. Biosyst Eng 88 (3): 281-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2004.04.010
ICARDA Communication Team, 2019. A chickpea revolution in Ethiopia. https://www.icarda.org/media/news/chickpea-revolution-ethiopia
Jayalakshmi V, 2016. Machine-harvestable chickpea varieties for a self-sufficient, food and nutrition secure India. https://www.icrisat.org/machine-harvestable-chickpea-varieties-for-a-self-sufficient-food-and-nutrition-secure-india/
Kanouni H, Farayedi Y, Sabaghpour S, Sadeghzadeh-Ahari D, Shahab M, Kamel M, 2014. Saral, new chickpea variety to expand autumn sowing in highland cold areas of Iran. Res Achiev Field Hort Crops 2 (4): 265-276.
MacDon Industries Ltd., 2019. D65 draper headers for combine. https://www.macdon.com/en/products/d65-draper-headers-for-combine/
Managing and Planning Institute, 2016. Yearly statistics of Kurdistan province: Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. The Managing and Planning Institute, Planning and Budget Organization, Government Department, Iran. https://kurdistan.mporg.ir/Portal/View/Page.aspx?PageId=77ca1d0b-79ec-4f3c-b424-32925714d0ce&t=13 [In Farsi].
McVay KA, 2019. Chickpea production. Montana State University Extension MontGuides. https://aes-swcrc.agsci.colostate.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/92/2019/03/MSU-Extension-Chickpea-Production.pdf
Miller M, Wright M, Mailander M, Beard J, 1990. A two-link harvester reel. Appl Eng Agr 6 (2): 131-137. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.26359
Modares Motlagh A, Rostampour V, Mardani K, 2018. Design, fabrication and evaluation of a short-legged chickpea harvest machine. Iran J Biosyst Eng 49 (1): 83-94.
Muehlbauer FJ, Sarker A, 2017. Economic importance of chickpea: production, value, and world trade. In: The chickpea genome. Springer Int Publ AG. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66117-9_2
Oduori MF, Mbuya TO, Sakai J, Inoue E, 2008. Shattered rice grain loss attributable to the combine harvester reel: Model formulation and fitting to field data. Agr Eng Int: CIGR J X, PM 06 013.
Oduori MF, Mbuya TO, Sakai J, Inoue E, 2012a. Modeling of crop stem deflection in the context of combine harvester reel design and operation. Agr Eng Int: CIGR J 14 (2): 21-28.
Oduori MF, Mbuya TO, Sakai J, Inoue E, 2012b. Kinematics of the tined combine harvester reel. Agr Eng Int: CIGR J 14 (3): 53-60.
Paulsen MR, Pinto FA, de Sena Jr DG, Zandonadi RS, Ruffato S, Costa AG, Ragagnin VA, Danao MGC, 2014. Measurement of combine losses for corn and soybeans in Brazil. Appl Eng Agr 30 (6): 841-855. https://doi.org/10.13031/aea.30.10360
Paulsen MR, Kalita PK, Rausch KD, 2015. Postharvest losses due to harvesting operations in developing countries: a review. 2015 ASABE Annual International Meeting.
Primarysales, 2018. Adapt-A-Gap System. https://www.primarysales.com.au/products/harvest-parts/harvest-products/adapt-gap-system/
Quick GR, 1972. Analysis of the combine header and design for the reduction of gathering loss in soybeans.Iowa State University, Ph.D. Dissertation.
Saiz-Rubio V, Rovira-Más F, 2020. From smart farming towards agriculture 5.0: A review on crop data management. Agronomy 10 (207). https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10020207
Sakai J, Inoue E, Oduori MF, 1993. Combine harvester reel stagger-I. principle of determination of reel stagger based on reel kinematics and crop stem deflection. Ama-Agr Mech Asia AF 24: 27-27.
Saskatchewan Pulse Growers, 2020. Pulse knowledge herbicides for pre-harvest use in pulses. https://saskpulse.com/files/newsletters/200713_Pre_Harvest_Options_for_Pulses_2020.pdf
Shahbazi F, 2018. Effects of moisture content and level in the crop on the shearing properties of chickpea stem. Agr Eng Int: CIGR J 19 (4): 187-192.
Sidahmed M, Jaber N, 2004. The design and testing of a cutter and feeder mechanism for the mechanical harvesting of lentils. Biosyst Eng 88 (3): 295-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2004.04.002
Siemens MC, 2006. Effect of guard spacing, guard attachments and reel type on chickpea harvesting losses. Appl Eng Agr 22 (5): 651-657. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.21997
Singh U, Gaur P, Singh G, Chaturvedi S, 2018. Mechanical harvesting of chickpea: Agronomic interventions. In: Farm mechanization for production. Scientific Publisher, India.
The Atlantic, 2019. In the future, everything will be made of chickpeas. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2019/03/chickpea-products-have-exploded-popularity-us/584956/
UCDavice, 2014. Feed the future. The United States Global Government Hunger and Food Security Institute. http://chickpealab.ucdavis.edu/
Yavari I, 2017. A new platform equipped with a pneumatic feeder for harvesting chickpeas and lentils. http://www.iana.ir [In Frasi].
Zobeiri M, Rostampour V, Rezvanivand Fanaei A, Nikbakht AM, 2020. Experimental and numerical investigation of deviation blade effect on sedimentation chamber performance in chickpea harvesting machine. Iran J Biosyst Eng 51 (2): 329-339. [In Farsi].
© INIA. Manuscripts published are the property of the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
SJAR is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.