Effect of plant growth regulators on two different types of eggplant flowers regarding style length and fruit setting

Keywords: Auxin, Heterostyly, Nutrient concentration, Polyamine, Solanum melongena, Yield


Aim of study: (i) to explore differences between eggplant flowers capable of setting fruit including long (LGs) and medium style flowers (MEs) and those which suffer from severe problems with fertility and fruit setting including short style ones (SRTs); (ii) to study the effect of plant growth regulators on floral morphology and fruit setting.

Area of study: Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, 2017 and 2018.

Material and methods: First the floral morphology and initial fruit setting of 13 eggplant genotypes from Iran were investigated. Then the differences between LGs and SRTs of two genotypes were explored. Finally, the effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and spermidine (Spd) on floral morphology and initial and final fruit setting of these two genotypes was determined.

Main results: Results showed SRTs were not capable of fruit setting. Compared to SRTs, LGs had larger central canals, higher protein, total sugar, reducing sugar and K concentrations, as well as longer polar axis and pollen tubes and greater pollen viability. Although 1.5 mM Spd and 20 mg L-1 NAA resulted in increasing of LGs and MEs, and also total initial fruit set, surprisingly, no significant differences were observed in the final yield and final fruit set between the control and these treatments.

Researching highlights: Since the rate of fruit dropping was higher in those treatments compared to the control, plants with more SRTs likely regulate their final load by abscising their flowers, and plants with more LGs regulate them by abscising their fruits.


Download data is not yet available.


Abney TD, 1997. Factors affecting plant height and yield of eggplant. J Sustain Agric 10: 37-48. https://doi.org/10.1300/J064v10n04_05

Akhtar N, Bhuian AH, Quadir A, Mondal F, 1997. Effect of NAA on yield and quality of summer tomato. Ann Bangladesh Agric 6: 67-70.

Aliyu OM, Adeigbe OO, Awopetu JA, 2011. Foliar application of the exogenous plant hormones at pre-blooming stage improves flowering and fruiting in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). J Crop Sci Biotechnol 14: 143-150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12892-010-0070-3

Belho V, 1992. Pollen physiology of alkaloid yielding Solanums _S khasianum Clarke and S marginatum L f_ and flower bud development of S khasianum in vitro. Master's thesis. North-Eastern Hill Univ, Shillong, India.

Bolat İ, Pirlak L, 1999. An investigation on pollen viability, germination and tube growth in some stone fruits. Turk J Agric For 23: 383-388.

Borrell A, Carbonell L, Farras R, Puig Parellada P, Tiburcio AF, 1997. Polyamines inhibit lipid peroxidation in senescing oat leaves. Physiol Plant 99: 385-390. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3054.1997.990305.x

Bradford MM, 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72: 248-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3

Brewbaker JL, Kwack BH, 1963. The essential role of calcium ion in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Am J Bot 50: 859-865. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1963.tb06564.x

Carter MR, 1993. Soil sampling and methods of analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Caruso G, Pokluda R, Sękara A, Kalisz A, Jezdinský A, Kopta T, Grabowska A, 2017. Agricultural practices, biology and quality of eggplant cultivated in Central Europe. A review. Hortic Sci 44: 201-212. https://doi.org/10.17221/36/2016-HORTSCI

Chadha ML, Saimbhi MS, 1977. Varietal variation in flower types in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Indian J Hortic 34: 426-429.

Chapman HD, Pratt PF, 1961. Methods of analysis of soil, plants and water. Univ. of California, Div. of Agric. Sci.

Choudhury S, Islam N, Sarkar MD, Ali MA, 2013. Growth and yield of summer tomato as influenced by plant growth regulators. Int J Sustain Agric 5: 25-28.

Dafni A, Pacini E, Nepi M, 2005. Pollen and stigma biology. In: Practical pollination biology; Dafni A, et al. (eds.). pp: 83-146. Ontario, Enviroquest.

Dane F, Olgun G, Dalgic O, 2004. In vitro pollen germination of some plant species in basic culture medium. J Cell Mol Biol 3: 71-76.

Dickinson DB, 1967. Permeability and respiratory properties of germinating pollen. Physiol Plant 20: 118-127. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1967.tb07149.x

Erbar C, 2003. Pollen tube transmitting tissue: place of competition of male gametophytes. Int J Plant Sci 164: S265-S277. https://doi.org/10.1086/377061

Fang K, Zhang W, Xing Y, Zhang Q, Yang L, Cao Q, Qin L, 2016. Boron toxicity causes multiple effects on Malus domestica pollen tube growth. Front Plant Sci 7: 208. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00208

Faostat, 2018. Crops and livestock products. https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QCL.

Fei S, Nelson E, 2003. Estimation of pollen viability, shedding pattern, and longevity of creeping bentgrass on artificial media. Crop Sci 43: 2177-2181. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2003.2177

Ge LL, Tian HQ, Russell SD, 2007. Calcium function and distribution during fertilization process of angiosperms. Am J Bot 94: 1046-1060. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.94.6.1046

Guo DP, Sun YZ, Chen ZJ, 2003. Involvement of polyamines in cytoplasmic male sterility of stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsai). Plant Growth Regul 41: 33-40.

Handique AK, Sarma A, 1995. Alteration of heterostyly in Solanum melongena L. through gamma-radiation and hormonal treatment. J Nucl Agric Biol 24: 121-126.

Hazra P, Manda J, Mukhopadhyay TP, 2003. Pollination behaviour and natural hybridization in Solanum melongena L., and utilization of the functional male sterile line in hybrid seed production. Capsicum Eggplant Newsl 22: 143-146.

Hoque AA, Ahmed QM, Rahman MM, Islam MA, 2018. Effect of application frequency of naphthalene acetic acid on physiomorphological characters and yield of brinjal. Res Agric Livest Fish 5(2): 151-155. https://doi.org/10.3329/ralf.v5i2.38051

Huang J, Cao QF, Meng YP, 2004. Effect of culture medium components on in vitro germination of pumpkin pollen. China Cucurbits Veg 3: 6-7.

Jagatheeswari D, 2014. Morphological studies on flowering plants (Solanaceae). Int Lett Nat Sci 15: 36-43. https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILNS.15.36

Jizhong X, Haijiang C, Xiaodong L, Zhihua Z, Yanhui W, 2004. Effect of exogenous polyamines on female and male flower differentiation and content of endogenous polyamines in leaves of walnut. Acta Hortic Sin 31: 437-440.

Karni L, Aloni B, 2002. Fructokinase and hexokinase from pollen grains of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): possible role in pollen germination under conditions of high temperature and CO2 enrichment. Ann Bot 90: 607-612. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcf234

Khezri M, Talaie A, Javanshah A, Hadavi F, 2010. Effect of exogenous application of free polyamines on physiological disorders and yield of 'Kaleh-Ghoochi'pistachio shoots (Pistacia vera L.). Sci Hortic 125: 270-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.03.014

Kowalska G, 2006. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) flowering and fruiting dynamics depending on pistil type as well as way of pollination and flower hormonization. Folia Hortic 18(1): 17-29.

Kwack BH, 1967. Studies on cellular site of calcium action in promoting pollen growth. Physiol Plant 20: 825-833. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1967.tb08370.x

Lenz F, 1970. Effect of fruit on sex expression in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Hortic Res 10: 81-82.

Li YQ, Mareck A, Faleri C, Moscatelli A, Liu Q, Cresti M, 2002. Detection and localization of pectin methylesterase isoforms in pollen tubes of Nicotiana tabacum L. Planta 214: 734-740. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004250100664

Liu JH, Honda C, Moriguchi T, 2006. Involvement of polyamine in floral and fruit development. Jpn Agric Res Q 40: 51-58. https://doi.org/10.6090/jarq.40.51

Malmberg RL, 1980. Biochemical, cellular and developmental characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant of Nicotiana tabacum and its second site revertant. Cell 22: 603-609. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(80)90370-0

Martin-Tanguy J, Deshayes A, Perdrizet E, Martin C, 1979. Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCA) in Zea mays. Febs Lett 108: 176-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(79)81203-X

Mascarenhas JP, Machlis L, 1964. Chemotropic response of the pollen of Antirrhinum majus to calcium. Plant Physiol 39: 70. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.39.1.70

McCready RM, Guggolz J, Silviera V, Owens HS, 1950. Determination of starch and amylose in vegetables. Anal Chem 22: 1156-1158. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60045a016

Meyer RS, Karol KG, Little DP, Nee MH, Litt A, 2012. Phylogeographic relationships among Asian eggplants and new perspectives on eggplant domestication. Mol Phylogenet Evol 63: 685-701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.02.006

Miller GL, 1959. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem 31: 426-428. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60147a030

Mohideen MK, Muthukrishnan CR, Rajagopal A, Metha VA, 1977. Studies on the rate of flowering, flower types and fruit set in relation to yielding potential of certain eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) varieties with reference to weather conditions. South Ind Hortic 25: 56-61.

Mondal S, Ghanta R, 2012. Effect of sucrose and boric acid on in vitro pollen germination of Solanum macranthum Dunal. Ind J Fund Appl Life Sci 2: 202-206.

Moniruzzaman M, Khatoon R, Hossain MFB, Jamil MK, Islam MN, 2015. Effect of GA and NAA on physio-morphological characters, yield and yield components of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Bangladesh J Agric Res 39: 397-405. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjar.v39i3.21983

Nagasawa M, Sugiyama A, Mori H, Shiratake K, Yamaki S, 2001. Analysis of genes preferentially expressed in early stage of pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit in eggplant. J Plant Physiol 158(2): 235-240. https://doi.org/10.1078/0176-1617-00168

Nortin JD, 1966. Testing of plum pollen viability with tetrazolium salts. Proc Amer Soc Hort Sci 89: 132-134.

Obermeyer G, Blatt MR, 1995. Electrical properties of intact pollen grains of Lilium longiflorum: characteristics of the non-germinatingpollen grain. J Exp Bot 46: 803-813. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/46.7.803

O'Kelley JC, 1957. Boron effects on growth, oxygen uptake and sugar absorption by germinating pollen. Am J Bot 44(3): 239-244. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1957.tb08236.x

Pandit MK, Thapa H, Akhtar S, Hazra P, 2010. Evaluation of brinjal genotypes for growth and reproductive characters with seasonal variation. J Crop Weed 6(2): 31-34.

Passam HC, Bolmatis A, 1997. The influence of style length on the fruit set, fruit size and seed content of aubergines cultivated under high ambient temperature. Trop Sci 37: 221-227.

Patel RG, Mankad AU, 2014. In vitro pollen germination-a review. Int J Sci Res 3: 304-307.

Pérez-Castro R, Kasai K, Gainza-Cortés F, Ruiz-Lara S, Casaretto JA, Peña-Cortés H, et al., 2012. VvBOR1, the grapevine ortholog of AtBOR1, encodes an efflux boron transporter that is differentially expressed throughout reproductive development of Vitis vinifera L. Plant Cell Physiol 53: 485-494. https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcs001

Picton JM, Steer MW, 1983. Evidence for the role of Ca2+ ions in tip extension in pollen tubes. Protoplasma 115: 11-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01293575

Pohl A, Grabowska A, Kalisz A, Sękara A, 2019. Biostimulant application enhances fruit setting in eggplant-An insight into the biology of flowering. Agronomy 9: 482. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9090482

Polya GM, Micucci V, Rae AL, Harris PJ, Clarke AE, 1986. Ca2+‐dependent protein phosphorylation in germinated pollen of Nicotiana alata, an ornamental tobacco. Physiol Plant 67: 151-157. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1986.tb02437.x

Ponchet M, Martin-Tanguy J, Marais A, Martin C, 1980. Hydroxycinnamoyl acid amides and aromatic amines in the inflorescences of some Araceae species. Phytochemistry 21: 2865-2869. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(80)85057-6

Prasad DN, Prakash R, 1968. Floral biology of brinjal (Solanum melongena L). Indian J Agric Sci 38: 1053.

Rashid MA, Singh DP, 2000. A manual on vegetable seed production in Bangladesh. AVRDC-USAID-Bangladesh Project, Hortic Res Centr, Bangladesh Agric Res Inst.

Rastogi R, Sawhney VK, 1990a. Polyamines and flower development in the male sterile stamenless-2 mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.): I. Level of polyamines and their biosynthesis in normal and mutant flowers. Plant Physiol 93: 439-445. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.93.2.439

Rastogi R, Sawhney VK, 1990b. Polyamines and flower development in the male sterile stamenless-2 mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.): II. Effects of polyamines and their biosynthetic inhibitors on the development of normal and mutant floral buds cultured in vitro. Plant Physiol 93: 446-452. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.93.2.446

Ravestijn WV, 1983. Improvement of fruit set in eggplants with 4-CPA (Tomatotone). Acta Hortic 137: 321-328. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1983.137.37

Ravindran S, 1981. Radiobiological studies in solasodine yielding solanums. Doctoral thesis. North-Eastern Hill Univ, Shillong, India.

Rylski I, Nothmann J, Arcan L, 1984. Differential fertility in short-styled eggplant flowers. Sci Hortic 22: 39-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(84)90081-5

Salas P, Rivas-Sendra A, Prohens J, Seguí-Simarro JM, 2012. Influence of the stage for anther excision and heterostyly in embryogenesis induction from eggplant anther cultures. Euphytica 184: 235-250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-011-0569-9

Sarker BC, Roy B, Mustary S, Sultana BS, Basak B, 2011. Yield potential of some eggplant varieties under plant growth regulator. J Innov Dev Strategy 5(1): 34-37.

Sękara A, Bieniasz M, 2008. Pollination, fertilization and fruit formation in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Acta Agrobot 61: 107. https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.2008.014

Shivanna KR, Johri BM, 1985. The Angiosperm pollen: structure and function. Wiley Eastern, New Delhi.

Shivanna KR, Rangaswamy NS, 2012. Pollen biology: a laboratory manual. Springer Sci & Bus Media, Germany.

Singh A, 2010. Effect of NAA on growth and yield of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Master's thesis. Banaras Hindu Univ, Varanasi, India.

Singh J, Singh KP, Kalloo G, 2002. Effect of some plant growth regulators on fruit set and development under cold climatic conditions in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Progress Hortic 34: 211-214.

Srinivas G, Jayappa AH, Patel AI, 2016. Heterostyly: A threat to potential fruit yield in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Adv Life Sci 5: 1211-1215.

Steinhorst L, Kudla J, 2013. Calcium-a central regulator of pollen germination and tube growth. Biochim Biophys Acta 1833: 1573-1581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2012.10.009

Stephenson AG, Erickson CW, Lau TC, Quesada MR, Winsor JA, 1994. Effects of growing conditions on the male gametophyte. In: Pollen-pistil interactions and pollen tube growth; Stephenson AG & Kao T (eds). pp: 220-229. Rockville, MD, USA.

Sun W, Wang D, Wu Z, Zhi J, 1990. Seasonal change of fruit setting in eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) caused by different climatic conditions. Sci Hortic 44: 55-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(90)90016-8

Tavakoli K, Rahemi M, 2014. Effect of polyamines, 2, 4-D, isopropyl ester and naphthalene acetamide on improving fruit yield and quality of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Int J Hortic Sci Technol 1: 163-169.

Taylor LP, Hepler PK, 1997. Pollen germination and tube growth. Annu Rev Plant Biol 48: 461-491. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.48.1.461

Vasil IK, 1964. Effect of boron on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Pollen Physiol Fertil 107-119.

Waling I, Vark WV, Houba VJG, Van der Lee JJ, 1989. Soil and plant analysis, a series of syllabi, part 7: Plant analysis procedures. Wageningen Agric Univ, Netherlands.

Wang Q, Lu L, Wu X, Li Y, Lin J, 2003. Boron influences pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Picea meyeri. Tree Physiol 23: 345-351. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/23.5.345

Woodward AW, Bartel B, 2005. Auxin: regulation, action, and interaction. Ann Bot 95: 707-735. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mci083

How to Cite
KhaleghiS., BaninasabB., MobliM., & EhtemamM. H. (2021). Effect of plant growth regulators on two different types of eggplant flowers regarding style length and fruit setting . Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 19(4), e0906. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2021194-17595
Plant production (Field and horticultural crops)