Covid-19 lockdown and wine consumption frequency in Portugal and Spain (Article replaced)

  • João Rebelo University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Centre for Transdisciplinary Development Studies (CETRAD), Dept. Economics, Sociology and Management (DESG), Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real
  • Raúl Compés Universitat Politècnica de València, Dept. Economics and Social Sciences, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia
  • Samuel Faria University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Centre for Transdisciplinary Development Studies (CETRAD), Dept. Economics, Sociology and Management (DESG), Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Reall
  • Tânia Gonçalves University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Centre for Transdisciplinary Development Studies (CETRAD), Dept. Economics, Sociology and Management (DESG), Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real
  • Vicente Pinilla Universidad de Zaragoza and Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Facultad de Economia y Empresa, Dept. Applied Economics, Gran Via 2, 50005 Zaragoza
  • Katrin Simón-Elorz Universidad Pública de Navarra and INARBE, Dept. Business Administration, Campus Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona
Keywords: wine economics, consumer behaviour, psychological factors, probit regression


This article was published on 6 June 2021. It was replaced on 28 June 2021 in

Aim of study: This study aims to analyse how psychological factors related to the Covid-19 lockdown affected the frequency of wine consumption among Iberian consumers.

Area of study: To achieve this goal, we used data collected from an online survey in Europe comprising 4489 observations from Portuguese and Spanish samples.

Material and methods: Using an ordered probit model, we analysed the wine consumption frequency as a function of a set of explanatory variables related to psychological factors and also sociodemographic variables, motivation-related variables and consumption characterisation.

Main results: For Spanish respondents the fear of isolation was a decisive factor in increasing the probability of a higher frequency of wine consumption. Meanwhile, in Portugal, the fear of an economic crisis was the psychological factor leading to a higher consumption frequency.

Research highlights: In both countries, psychological factors influenced the frequency of wine consumption during the lockdown due to Covid-19. However, the impact of the Covid-19 crisis has been felt differently in Spain and Portugal. Differences can be observed in both psychological and behavioural attitudes that have influenced the frequency of wine consumption and could also indicate significant cultural differences.


Download data is not yet available.


Agrawal A, Dick DM, Bucholz KK, Madden PAF, Cooper ML, Sher KJ, Heath AC, 2008. Drinking expectancies and motives: A genetic study of young adult women. Addiction 103: 194-204.

Anderson K, Pinilla V, 2018. Wine globalization. A new comparative history. Cambridge Univ Press, NY.

Anderson K, Meloni G, Swinnen J, 2018. Global alcohol markets: Evolving consumption patterns, regulations and industrial organizations. Annu Rev Resour Econ 10: 105-132.

Arpaci I, Karataş K, Baloğlu M, 2020. The development and initial tests for the psychometric properties of the Covid-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). Pers Individ Differ 164, 110108.

Atalan A, 2020. Is the lockdown important to prevent the Covid-19 pandemic? Effects on psychology, environment and economy-perspective. Ann Med Surg 56: 38-42.

Attard R, Dingli P, Doggen CJ, Cassar K, Farrugia R, Wettinger SB, 2019. The impact of frequency, pattern, intensity, and type of alcohol consumption, and its combined effect with smoking on inflammation, lipid profile, and the risk of myocardial infarction. J Public Health: 1-14.

Banerjee N, 2014. Neurotransmitters in alcoholism: A review of neurobiological and genetic studies. Ind J Human Genet 20 (1): 20.

Barrena R, Sanchez M, 2009. Connecting product attributes with emotional benefits: analysis of a Mediterranean product across consumer age segments. Brit Food J 111: 120-37.

Baum-Baicker C, 1985. The psychological benefits of moderate alcohol consumption: a review of the literature. Drug Alcohol Depend 15 (4): 305-322.

Bazal P, Gea A, Martínez-González MA, Salas-Salvadó J, Asensio EM, Muñoz-Bravo C, Pintó X, 2019. Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern, low to moderate alcohol intake and risk of atrial fibrillation in the PREDIMED study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 29 (7): 676-683.

Bentzen J, Eriksson T, Smith V, 1999. Rational addiction and alcohol consumption: evidence from the Nordic countries. J Consum Policy 22 (3): 257-279.

Bor J, Basu S, Coutts A, McKee M, Stuckler D, 2013. Alcohol use during the great recession of 2008-2009. Alcohol Alcohol 48 (3): 343-348.

Braccale R, Vaccaro C, 2020. Changes in food choce following restrictive measures due to Covid-19. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 30 (9): 1423-1426.

Brodeur A, Clark AE, Fleche S, Powdthavee N, 2020. Assessing the impact of the coronavirus lockdown on unhappiness, loneliness, and boredom using Google Trends. arXiv:2004.12129 [physics.soc-ph].

Bruwer J, Buller C, 2013. Product involvement, brand loyalty, and country-of-origin brand preferences of Japanese wine consumers. J Wine Res 24 (1): 38-58.

Callwood K, 2013. Psychological factors that influence consumer buying behavior. J Busin 15 (2): 39-48.

Castriota S, 2020. Wine economics. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Chaix B, Delamon G, Guillemasse A, Brouard B, Bibault JE, 2020. Psychological distress during the Covid-19 pandemic in France: A national assessment of at-risk populations. Gen Psychiatr 33 (6): e100349.

Chang K, Liz MW, Janeen O, 2016. Wine and health perceptions: Exploring the impact of gender, age and ethnicity on consumer perceptions of wine and health. Wine Econ Policy 5 (2): 105-113.

Charters S, Pettigrew S, 2008. Why do people drink wine? A consumer-focused exploration. J Food Prod Mark 14 (3): 13-32.

Cooper ML, 1994. Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: Development and validation of a four-factor model. Psychol Assess 6 (2): 117.

Di Renzo L, Gualtieri P, Pivari F, Soldati L, Attinà A, Cinelli G, et al., 2020. Eating habits and lifestyle changes during Covid-19 lockdown: An Italian survey. J Transl Med 18: 229.

Dobrovolskij V, Stukas R, 2013. The impact of economic crisis on nutrition habits - Comparison of eating habits in 2013 and 2007 in Lithuania. Eur J Public Health 23 (S1): ckt124.101.

Dom G, Samochowiec J, Evans-Lacko S, Wahlbeck K, Van Hal G, McDaid D, 2016. The impact of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns in the countries of the European Union. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13 (1): 122.

Dunbar RIM, Launay J, Wlodarski R, Robertson C, Pearce E, Carney J, MacCarron P, 2017. Functional benefits of (modest) alcohol consumption. Adapt Human Behav Physiol 3 (2): 118-133.

Fogarty J, 2010. The demand for beer, wine and spirits: A survey of the literature. Econ Surv 24 (3): 428-478.

Forbes S, 2017. Post-disaster consumption: Analysis from the 2011, Christchurch earthquake. Int Rev Retail Distrib Consum Res 27 (1): 28-42.

Forbes SL, Wilson MM, 2018. Resilience and response of wine supply chains to disaster: the Christchurch earthquake sequence. Int Rev Retail Distrib Consum Res 28 (5): 472-489.

Foster DW, Neighbors C, Prokhorov A, 2014. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems. Addict Behav 39 (1): 133-139.

Garbinti B, Lamarche P, Lecanu C, Savignac F, 2020. Wealth effect on consumption during the sovereign debt crisis: households' heterogeneity in the euro area. European Central Bank, Working Paper Series No 2357.

Gea A, Beunza JJ, Estruch R, Sánchez-Villegas A, Salas-Salvadó J, Buil-Cosiales P, Arós F, 2013. Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study. BMC medicine 11 (1): 192.

Gergaud O, Livat F, Song H, 2018. Terrorism and wine tourism: The case of museum attendance. J Wine Econ 13 (4): 375-383.

Gil AI, Molina JA, 2009. Alcohol demand among young people in Spain: an addictive QUAIDS. Empir Econ 36 (3): 515-530.

Goldsmith RE, d'Hauteville F, 1998. Heavy wine consumption: empirical and theoretical perspectives. Brit Food J 100 (4): 184-190.

Gonçalves T, Pinto LMC, Lourenço-Gomes L, 2020. Attribute non-attendance in wine choice: Contrasts between stated and inferred approaches. Econ Anal Policy 66: 262-275.

Gunay GN, Baker MJ, 2011. The factors influencing consumers' behaviour on wine consumption in the Turkish wine market. Eur Med J Busin 6 (3): 324-341.

Hall J, Lockshin L, 2000. Using means-end chains for analysing occasions-not buyers. Australas Market J 8 (1): 45-54.

Heckley G, Jarl J, Gerdtham UG, 2017. Frequency and intensity of alcohol consumption: new evidence from Sweden. Eur J Health Econ 18 (4): 495-517.

Helble M, Sato A, 2011. Booms and booze: on the relationship between macroeconomic conditions and alcohol consumption. LSE Research.

Holmes A, Anderson K 2017. Convergence in national alcohol consumption patterns: new global indicators. J Wine Econ 12 (2): 117-148.

ICEX, 2019. El mercado del vino en Portugal. ICEX España Exportación e Inversiones.

Interprofesional del Vino de España, 2020. Radiografía sobre el consumo de vino en España. Observatorio Español del Mercado del Vino.

Ji MF, Wood W, 2007. Purchase and consumption habits: Not necessarily what you intend. J Consum Psychol 17 (4): 261-276.

Leifman H, 2001. Homogenisation in alcohol consumption in the European Union. Nordic Stud Alcohol Drugs 18 (1_suppl): 15-30.

Lovinger DM, 1997. Serotonin's role in alcohol's effects on the brain. Alcohol Health Res World 21 (2): 114.

Martinez-Carrasco L, Brugarolas M, Gomis FJ, Africa MP, 2006. Influences of purchase place and consumption frequency over quality wine preferences. Food Qual Prefer 17 (5): 315-327.

McGuire WJ, 1976. Some internal psychological factors influencing consumer choice. J Consum Res 2 (4): 302-319.

McKelvey W, Zavoina T, 1975. A statistical model for analysis of ordinal level dependent variables. J Math Sociol Summer 1975: 103-120.

Moran C, Saliba AJ, 2012. Reasons for drinking wine and other beverages: comparison across motives in older adults. Int J Int Wine Res 4: 25-32.

Mucci N, Giorgi G, Roncaioli M, Perez JF, Arcangeli G, 2016. The correlation between stress and economic crisis: a systematic review. Neuropsych Dis Treat 12: 983.

OECD, 2020. The territorial impact of Covid-19: Managing the crisis across levels of government.

Peele S, Grant M (eds). 1999. Alcohol and pleasure: A health perspective. Psychology Press.

Platania M, Platania S, Santisi G, 2016. Entertainment marketing, experiential consumption and consumer behavior: the determinant of choice of wine in the store. Wine Econ Policy 5 (2): 87-95.

Ribeiro T, Corsi A, Lockshin L, Louviere J, Loose SM, 2020. Analysis of consumer preferences for information and expert opinion using a discrete choice experiment. Port Econ J 19: 67-80.

Ruhm CJ, Black, WE (2002). Does drinking really decrease in bad times? J Health Econ 21 (4): 659-678.

Sayette MA, 1993. An appraisal-disruption model of alcohol's effects on stress responses in social drinkers. Psychol Bull 114 (3): 459.

Sibley CG, Greaves LM, Satherley N, Wilson MS, Overall NC, Lee CH, Houkamau CA, 2020. Effects of the Covid-19 pandemic and nationwide lockdown on trust, attitudes toward government, and well-being. Am Psychol 75 (5): 1-13.

Silva AP, Jager G, Van Zyl H, Voss HP, Pintado M, Hogg T, De Graaf C, 2017. Cheers, proost, saúde: cultural, contextual and psychological factors of wine and beer consumption in Portugal and in the Netherlands. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 57 (7): 1340-1349.

Smith DE, Mitry DJ, 2007. Cultural convergence: consumer behavioral changes in the European wine market. J Wine Res 18 (2): 107-112.

Stritzke WG, Lang AR, Patrick CJ, 1996. Beyond stress and arousal: A reconceptualization of alcohol-emotion relations with reference to psychophysiological methods. Psychol Bull 120 (3): 376.

Taherdoost H, 2016. Sampling methods in research methodology; how to choose a sampling technique for research. Int J Acad Res Manage 5 (2): 18-27.

Thach L, Chang K, 2015. Survey of American wine consumer preferences.

Thach L, Olsen J, 2015. Profiling the high-frequency wine consumer by price segmentation in the US market. Wine Econ Policy 4: 53-59.

Thach L, Chang K, 2016. Wine generations: A new survey looks at consumer wine preferences. Vine Wine Manage 42 (1): 124-128.

Thach L, Eyler R, 2017. Up in smoke: Will wildfires leave lasting economic scars on California's vital wine country? Aust NZ Grapegrow Winemak 647: 84-85.

Van Hal, G, 2015. The true cost of the economic crisis on psychological well-being: A review. Psychol Res Behav Manage 8: 17-25.

Van Hoof E, 2020. Lockdown is the world's biggest psychological experiment-and we will pay the price. World Econ Forum, Vol. 9.

How to Cite
RebeloJ., CompésR., FariaS., GonçalvesT., PinillaV., & Simón-ElorzK. (2021). Covid-19 lockdown and wine consumption frequency in Portugal and Spain (Article replaced). Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 19(2), e0105.
Agricultural economics