Fuzzy multicriteria analysis of “Better Cotton” farmers’ adoption and experts’ recommendation on cotton pest and disease management practices

Keywords: AHP, farming, framework, Pakistan, sustainability


Aim of study: The Better Cotton Initiative is the largest cotton sustainability programme in the world because of the problems with conventional cotton farming and its impact on the environment. It aims to assist cotton communities in surviving and thriving while protecting and restoring the environment. Pakistan needs to make sure that local farmers are adopting these improved crop management practices in order to increase cotton production over the long term. Therefore, our work was to: (i) identify the cotton pests and disease management practices (CPDM) in Pakistan; (ii) evaluate the BC farmers’ level of adoption of CPDM; (iii) compare the experts’ recommendation on CPDM, and (iv) propose a suitable method to evaluate the adoption level.

Area of study: BC farmers from Tando Allahyar district areas (Pakistan) were selected to investigate the adoptability to CPDM practices.

Material and methods: The method first identified evaluation criteria based on a literature review and the recommendations of ten experts in crop protection. Then, the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to weigh all the criteria according to two aspects, BC farmers’ adoption level and experts’ recommendations.

Main results: Crop rotation, resistant cultivars, planting Bt with non-Bt cotton and border crops, recommended by experts, were all highly adopted by farmers. However, the adoption rate of other technologies and practices (NEFR technology, botanical spray, and pheromone traps) was low.

Research highlights: It was found that BC farmers were more likely to adopt CPDM practices recommended by experts. The above modern concepts and technologies must be adopted to promote sustainable cotton production, pest and disease management, and environmental quality.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdel-Megeed MI, Hegazy GM, Hegab MF, Kamel MH, 1998. Non-traditional approaches for controlling the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. infesting tomato plants. Ann Agric Sci (Cairo) 1: 177-189.

Ahmad F, Akram W, Sajjad A, Imran AU, 2011. Management practices against cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Int J Agr Biol 13(4): 547-552.

Ahmad M, Muhammad W, Sajjad A, 2020. Ecological management of cotton insect pests. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1472-2_12

Allen SJ, 2007. Integrated disease management for Fusarium wilt of cotton in Australia. World Cotton Research Conference 4, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Anonymous, 2008. Economic survey of Pakistan. Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Islamabad. pp: 17-37.

Arshad M, Suhail A, Gogi MD, Yaseen M, Asghar M, Tayyib M, et al., 2009. Farmers' perceptions of insect pests and pest management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan. Int J Pest Manage 55(1): 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/09670870802419628

Ashok KR, Jeyanthi H, Prahadeeswaran M, Raguraman S, 2010. Economics of pest control and adoption of IPDM practices in major pesticide consuming crops in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agric J 97(4-6): 180-184.

Atakan E, Canhilal R, 2004. Evaluation of yellow sticky traps at various heights for monitoring cotton insect pests. J Agric Urban Entomol 21(1): 15-24.

Bessi R, Sujimoto FR, Inomoto MM, 2010. Seed treatment affects Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization and reproduction on cotton. Cienc Rural 40(6): 1428-1430. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782010000600030

Bhutto NN, Jiskani AM, Nizamani GM, 2022. Better Cotton: An approach to sustainable agriculture. J Appl Agr Sci Technol 6(1): 85-89. https://doi.org/10.55043/jaast.v6i1.35

Bhutto NN, Rahman A, Nahiyoon AA, Ahmed Khan R, Zaman B, 2018. Role of farmers' training on cotton production through farmer field school (FFS) approach in Sanghar, Sindh Pakistan. Int J Farm Allied Sci 7(1): 18-22.

Blaise D, Kranthi KR, 2019. Cotton production in India. In: Cotton production; Jabran K & Chauhan BS (eds). pp: 193-215. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119385523.ch10

Bowers C, Toews M, Liu Y, Schmidt JM, 2020. Cover crops improve early season natural enemy recruitment and pest management in cotton production. Biol Control 141: 104149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2019.104149

Deguine JP, Ferron P, Russell D, 2008. Sustainable pest management for cotton production. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 28(1): 113-137. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2007042

Gogus O, Boucher TO, 1998. Strong transitivity, rationality and weak monotonicity in fuzzy pairwise comparisons. Fuzzy Sets Syst 94(1): 133-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0114(96)00184-4

Headrick D, 2021. The future of organic insect pest management: Be a better entomologist or pay for someone who is. Insects 12(2): 140. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12020140

Hillocks RJ, 1998. Cotton diseases control: Contrasting approaches. Proc World Cotton Res Conf 2. Athens, Greece. pp: 69-74.

Ho P, Zhao JH, Xue D, 2009. Access and control of agro-biotechnology: Bt cotton, ecological change and risk in China. J Peasant Stud 36(2): 345-364. https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150902928330

Horne PA, Page J, Nicholson C, 2008. When will integrated pest management strategies be adopted? Example of the development and implementation of integrated pest management strategies in cropping systems in Victoria. Aust J Exp Agr 48(12): 1601-1607. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA08072

Hurd BH, 1994. Yield response and production risk: An analysis of integrated pest management in cotton. J Agr Resour Econ 19(2): 313-326.

Jamil I, Jun W, Mughal B, Raza MH, Imran MA, Waheed A, 2021. Does the adaptation of climate-smart agricultural practices increase farmers' resilience to climate change? Environ Sci Pollut Res 28(21): 27238-27249. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12425-8

Jiskani IM, Shah SAA, Qingxiang C, Zhou W, Lu X, 2020. A multi-criteria based SWOT analysis of sustainable planning for mining and mineral industry in Pakistan. Arab J Geosci 13(21): 1108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-06090-3

Jiskani IM, Cai Q, Zhou W, Ali Shah SA, 2021. Green and climate-smart mining: A framework to analyze open-pit mines for cleaner mineral production. Resour Pol 71: 102007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2021.102007

Kannan M, Uthamasamy S, Mohan S, 2004. Impact of insecticides on sucking pests and natural enemy complex of transgenic cotton. Curr Sci 86: 726-729.

Kaur G, Kumar R, Mittal S, Sahoo PK, Vaid U, 2021. Ground/drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence: A case study of rural areas of South West Punjab, India. Human Ecol Risk Assess 27(1): 205-226. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2019.1705145

Lewis WJ, van Lenteren JC, Phatak SC, Tumlinson JH, 1997. A total system approach to sustainable pest management. P Nat Acad Sci 94(23): 12243-12248. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.23.12243

Mahmood R, Keerio ID, Rehman A, Rashid K, 2018. Role of natural enemies field reservoir (NEFR) in farmer fields for controlling papaya mealy bug Paracoccusmarginatus at Karachi. Pak Entomol 40(1): 7-11.

Mohammed NAA, Xianhui G, Shah SAA, 2021. Non-oil economic transition for economic and environmental sustainability in Saudi Arabia: a multi-factor analysis under fuzzy environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28: 56219-56233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14304-8

Murtaza G, Ramzan M, Ghani MU, Munawar N, Majeed M, Perveen A, Umar K, 2019. Effectiveness of different traps for monitoring sucking and chewing insect pests of crops. Egypt Acad J Biol Sci A Entomol 12(6): 15-21. https://doi.org/10.21608/eajbsa.2019.58298

Negalur RB, Guruprasad GS, Gowdar SB, Narappa G, 2017. Apropriate agronomic practices for pest and disease management. Int J Bioresour Stress Manag 8(2): 272-279. https://doi.org/10.23910/IJBSM/2017.8.2.1801

Page S, Ritchie B, 2009. A report on better management practices in cotton production in Brazil, India, Pakistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Mali, Senegal & Togo. Better Cotton Initiative (BCI). CABI Europe-UK.

Pathak HS, Brown P, Best T, 2019. A systematic literature review of the factors affecting the precision agriculture adoption process. Precis Agr 20(6): 1292-1316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11119-019-09653-x

Prasanna AR, Nargund VB, Bheemanna M, Patil BV, 2002. Compatibility of Thiamethoxam with Trichoderma harzianum. J Biol Control 16(2): 149-152.

Prishanthini M, Vinobaba M, 2014. Efficacy of some selected botanical extracts against the cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Int J Sci Res Publ 4(3): 1-6.

Radhakrishnan S, 2017. Sustainable cotton production. In: Sustainable fibres and textiles; Muthu SS (ed). Woodhead Publ, pp: 21-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102041-8.00002-0

Rahman Mu, Shaheen T, Tabbasam N, Iqbal MA, Ashraf M, Zafar Y, Paterson AH, 2012. Cotton genetic resources. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 32(2): 419-432. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-011-0051-z

Raza MH, Abid M, Yan T, Ali Naqvi SA, Akhtar S, Faisal M, 2019. Understanding farmers' intentions to adopt sustainable crop residue management practices: A structural equation modeling approach. J Clean Prod 227: 613-623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.04.244

Rejesus RM, Jones MS, 2020. Perspective: enhancing economic evaluations and impacts of integrated pest management Farmer Field Schools (IPM-FFS) in low-income countries. Pest Manag Sci 76(11): 3527-3536. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.5912

Saaty TL, 1977. A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures. J Math Psychol 15(3): 234-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2496(77)90033-5

Saaty TL, 1989. Group decision making and the AHP. In: The analytic hierarchy process. Springer, pp: 59-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-50244-6_4

Sable BD, Kadam RP, 2012. Adoption gap in integrated pest management technology of cotton. Int J Plant Prot 5(2): 352-355.

Sehto GN, Rajput IA, Ahmed AM, Kolachi MM, Pathan AK, Depar MS, et al., 2020. Monitoring cotton bollworms through synthetic sex pheromone traps. Pure Appl Biol 9(3): 2007-2013. https://doi.org/10.19045/bspab.2020.90214

Shah FM, Razaq M, 2020. From agriculture to sustainable agriculture: Prospects for improving pest management in industrial revolution 4.0. In: Handbook of smart materials, technologies, and devices: Applications of industry 4.0; Hussain CM & Di Sia P (eds). Springer Int Publ, pp: 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58675-1_76-1

Sharma K, Dhaliwal NS, Bishnoi C, 2021. Adoption status of improved crop production practices in Bt-cotton in Sri Muktsar Sahib, Punjab. Ind J Extens Educ 57(2): 63-68.

Shenge NA, 2014. Training evaluation, benefits, and issues. IFE PsychologIA 22(1): 50-58.

Singh A, Kumar R, Das DK, 2007. An economic evaluation of environmental risk of pesticide use: A case study of paddy, vegetables and cotton in irrigated eco-system. Ind J Agr Econ 62(3): 492-502.

Singh A, Vasisht AK, Kumar R, Das DK, 2008. Adoption of integrated pest management practices in paddy and cotton: A case study in Haryana and Punjab. Agr Econ Res Rev 21(2): 221-226.

Siyal A, Mahesar T, Sufyan F, Siyal F, Jatt T, Mangi F, et al., 2021. Climate change: Impacts on the production of cotton in Pakistan. Eur J Agr Food Sci 3: 97-100. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.3.306

Sultana R, Wagan YS, Wagan MS, 2012. Effects of macro-parasitic mite Eutrombidium trigonum (Hermann) on the life history characteristics of Hieroglyphus species from Sindh, Pakistan. Afr J Microbiol Res 6(19): 4158-4163. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR11.1500

Sun CC, 2010. A performance evaluation model by integrating fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS methods. Expert Syst Appl 37(12): 7745-7754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2010.04.066

Tabashnik BE, Wu K, Wu Y, 2012. Early detection of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in China: cotton bollworm and pink bollworm. J Invert Pathol 110(3): 301-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2012.04.008

Tariq M, Ali H, Hussain N, Nasim W, Mubeen M, Ahmad S, Hasanuzzaman M, 2019. Fundamentals of crop rotation in agronomic management. In: Agronomic crops, Vol 1: Production technologies; Hasanuzzaman M (ed). Springer Singapore. pp: 545-559. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9151-5_24

Walter GH, 2005. Insect pest management and ecological research. Cambridge Univ Press.

Wan P, Huang Y, Wu H, Huang M, Cong S, Tabashnik BE, Wu K, 2012. Increased frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in China. PLoS One 7(1): e29975. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029975

Wu KM, Guo YY, 2005. The evolution of cotton pest management practices in China. Annu Rev Entomol 50(1): 31-52. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.50.071803.130349

Yasin MA, Bakhsh K, Ali R, Hussain HI, 2021. Impact of better cotton initiative on health cost and pesticide exposure of women cotton pickers in Punjab, Pakistan. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28(2): 2074-2081. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10582-w

Zhang L, Greenberg SM, Zhang Y, Liu TX, 2011. Effectiveness of thiamethoxam and imidacloprid seed treatments against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cotton. Pest Manag Sci 67(2): 226-232. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2056

Zulfiqar F, Datta A, Thapa GB, 2017. Determinants and resource use efficiency of "Better Cotton": An innovative cleaner production alternative. J Clean Prod 166: 1372-1380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.08.155

Zulfiquar S, Yasin MA, Bakhsh K, Ali R, Samiullah, Munir S, 2019. Environmental and economic impacts of better cotton: a panel data analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(18): 18113-18123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05109-x

How to Cite
JiskaniA. M., AbroM. A., KhaskheliM. I., & WaganK. H. (2022). Fuzzy multicriteria analysis of “Better Cotton” farmers’ adoption and experts’ recommendation on cotton pest and disease management practices. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 20(4), e1006. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2022204-18953
Plant protection