Short communication. Evaluation of the efficiency of imidacloprid and Encarsia inaron Walker (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) integration to control the whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), under greenhouse conditions
AbstractThe integrated whitefly control systems are based on the contribution of chemical and biological control fostered by conservation of natural enemies. This study attempts to establish the integrated impact of the parasitoid Encarsia inaron Walker (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in junction with the biorational imidacloprid against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorumWestwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), feeding on bean plants cv. Contender under greenhouse condition. Experiments were carried out to establish the individual and combined effects of the parasitoid and insecticide to control the greenhouse whitefly. A synergy effect was observed in the simultaneous use of E. inaron and imidacloprid causing 97.2% mortality in the population of immature whiteflies. There was no significant difference between the application of imidacloprid and the introduction of E. inaron alone which caused 90.1% and 78.7% whitefly mortality, respectively. The application of imidacloprid significantly reduced the percentage of the adult emergence and parasitism of E. inaron to 18% and 25% respectively, compared to control with 47% adult emergence and 57.9% parasitism. The current results suggest that despite some negative impacts of imidacloprid on E. inaron, the combination of these two factors works more efficiently than the use of them separately against the greenhouse whitefly.
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