Diurnal variations in water relations of deficit irrigated lemon trees during fruit growth period
Field-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. cv. Fino) were subjected to different drip irrigation treatments: a control treatment, irrigated daily above crop water requirements in order to obtain non-limiting soil water conditions and two deficit irrigation treatments, reducing the water applied according to the maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS) signal intensity (actual MDS/control treatment MDS) threshold values of 1.25 (T1 treatment) and 1.35 (T2 treatment), which induced two different drought stress levels. Daily variations in leaf (Yleaf) and stem (Ystem) water potentials, leaf conductance, net photosynthesis, sap flow (SF) and trunk diameter fluctuations were studied on four occasions during the lemon fruit growth period. Ystem and Yleaf revealed a diurnal pattern in response to changes in evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Both water potentials decreased in response to water deficits, which were more pronounced in the T2 treatment. Ystem was seen to be a better plant water status indicator than Yleaf. The difference between the two values of Y (Ystem - Yleaf = DY) was closely correlated with sap flow, making it a suitable measure of leaf transpiration. Using the slope of this relationship, the canopy hydraulic conductance (KC) was estimated. When other continuously recorded plant-based indicators are not accessible, the concurrent measurement of leaf and stem water potentials at midday, which are relatively inexpensive to measure and user-friendly, act as sufficiently good indicators of the plant water status in field grown Fino lemon trees.
Alarcón JJ, Domingo R, Green S, Sánchez-Blanco MJ, Rodríguez P, Torrecillas A, 2000. Sap flow as an indicator of transpiration and the water status of young apricot trees. Plant Soil 227: 77-85.
Alarcón JJ, Domingo R, Green SR, Nicolas E, Torrecillas A, 2003. Estimation of hydraulic conductance within field-grown apricot using sap flow measurements. Plant Soil 251: 125-135.
Allen RG, Pereira RS, Raes D, Smith M, 1998. Crop evapotranspiration-guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrig Drain 56. Roma. Available online in http://www.fao.org.
Álvarez-Arenas TEG, Sancho-Knapik D, Peguero-Pina JJ, Gil-Pelegrin E, 2009. Non-contact and non-invasive study of plant leaves using air-coupled ultrasounds. Appl Phys Lett 95: 193702.
Ben-Mimoun M, Longuenesse JJ, Genard M, 1996. Pmax as related to leaf:fruit ratio and fruit assimilate demand in peach. J Hortic Sci 71: 767-775.
Brodribb TJ, Holbrook NM, 2003. Changes in leaf hydraulic conductance during leaf shedding in seasonally dry tropical forest. New Phytol 158: 295- 303.
Camacho-B SE, Hall AE, Kaufmann MR, 1974. Efficiency and regulation of water transport in some woody and herbaceous species. Plant Physiol 54: 169-172.
Domingo R, Ruiz-Sánchez M.C, Sánchez-Blanco MJ, Torrecillas A, 1996. Water relations, growth and yield of Fino lemon trees under regulated deficit irrigation. Irrig Sci 16: 115-123.
Elfving DC, Kaufmann MR, Hall AE, 1972. Interpreting leaf water potential measurements with a model of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Physiol Plant 27: 161-168.
Fereres E, Soriano MA, 2007. Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use. J Exp Bot 58: 147-159.
Fernández JE, Green SR, Caspari HW, Díaz-Espejo A, Cuevas MV, 2008. The use of sap flow measurements for scheduling irrigation in olive, apple and Asian pear trees and in grapevines. Plant Soil 305: 91-104.
Fernández JE, Cuevas MV, 2010. Irrigation scheduling from stem diameter variations: a review. Agr For Meteor 150: 135-151.
Fernandez JE, Rodríguez-Domínguez CM, Perez-Martín A, Zimmermann E, Ruger S, Martín-Palomo MJ, Torres-Ruiz JM, Cuevas MV, Samm C, Ehrenberger W, Diaz-Espejo A, 2011. Online-monitoring of tree water stress in a hedgerow olive orchard using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe. Agr Water Manage 100: 25-35.
Ferreira MI, Pacheco CA, Valancogne C, Michaelsen J, Améglio T, Daudet FA, 1997. Evapotranspiration, water stress indicators and soil water balance in a Prunus persica orchard in central Portugal. Acta Hort 449: 379-385.
García-Orellana Y, Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Alarcón JJ, Conejero W, Ortuño MF, Nicolás E, Torrecillas A, 2007. Preliminary assessment of the feasibility of using maximum daily trunk shrinkage for irrigation scheduling in lemon trees. Agr Water Manage 89: 167-171.
Garnier E, Berger A, 1985. Testing water potential in peach trees as an indicator of water stress. J Hortic Sci 60: 47-56.
Ginestar C, Castel JR, 1996. Responses of young clementine citrus trees to water stress during different phenological periods. J Hortic Sci Biotech 71: 551- 559.
Girona J, Mata M., Del Campo J, Arbonés A, Bartra E, Marsal J, 2006. The use of midday leaf water potential for scheduling deficit irrigation in vineyards. Irrig Sci 24: 115-127.
Goldhamer DA, Fereres E, 2001. Irrigation scheduling protocols using continuously recorded trunk diameter measurements. Irrig Sci 20: 115-125.
Goldhamer DA, Fereres E, Salinas M, 2003. Can almond trees directly dictate their irrigations need? Calif Agric 57: 138-144.
Green SR, Clothier BE, 1988. Water use of kiwifruit vines and apple trees by the heat-pulse technique. J Exp Bot 39: 115–123.
Harrison RD, Daniell JW, Chesire JM, 1989. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of peach seedlings and cuttings in response to changes in soil water potential. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 114: 986-990.
Johnson RS, Handley DF, 2000. Using water stress to control vegetative growth and productivity of temperate fruit trees. HortScience 35: 1048-1050.
Layne D, Flore JA, 1993. Physiological responses of Prunus cerasus to whole plant source manipulation. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations and carbohydrate concentrations. Physiol Plant 88: 44-51.
McCutchan H, Shackel KA, 1992. Stem-water potential as a sensitive indicator of water stress in prune trees (Prunus domestica L. cv. French). J Amer Soc Hort Sci 117: 607-611.
Moreno F, Fernández JE, Clothier BE, Green SR, 1996. Transpiration and root water uptake by olive trees. Plant Soil 184: 85-96.
Nadler A, Tyree MT, 2008. Substituting stem's water content by electrical conductivity for monitoring water status changes. Soil Sci Am J 72: 1006-1013.
Nadler A, Raveh E, Yermiyahu U, Lado M, Nasser A, Barak M, Green S, 2008. Detecting water stress in trees using stem electrical conductivity measurements. Soil Sci Am J 72: 1014-1024.
Ortuño MF, Alarcón JJ, Nicolás E, Torrecillas A, 2005. Sap flow and trunk diameter fluctuations of young lemon trees under water stress and rewatering. Environ Exp Bot 54: 155-162.
Ortuño MF, García-Orellana Y, Conejero W, Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Alarcón JJ, Torrecillas A, 2006. Stem and leaf water potentials, gas exchange, sap flow and trunk diameter fluctuations for detecting water stress in lemon trees. Trees-Struct Funct 20: 1-8.
Ortuño MF, Brito JJ, Conejero W, García-Orellana Y, Torrecillas A, 2009a. Using continuously recorded trunk diameter fluctuations for estimating water requirements of lemon trees. Irrig Sci 27: 271-276.
Ortuño MF, García-Orellana Y, Conejero W, Pérez-Sarmiento F, Torrecillas A, 2009b. Assessment of maximum daily trunk shrinkage signal intensity threshold values for deficit irrigation in lemon trees. Agr Water Manage 96: 80-86.
Ortuño MF, Conejero W, Moreno F, Moriana A, Intrigliolo DS, Biel C, Mellisho CD, Pérez-Pastor A, Domingo R, Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Casadesus J, Bonany J, Torrecillas A, 2010. Could trunk diameter sensors be used in woody crops for irrigation scheduling? A review of current knowledge and future perspectives. Agr Water Manage 97: 1-11.
Oyarzún R, Stöckle C, Whiting M, 2010. Analysis of hydraulic conductance components in field grown, mature sweet cherry trees. Chilean J Agr Res 70(1): 58-66.
Remorini D, Massai R, 2003. Comparison of water status indicators for young peach trees. Irrig Sci 22: 39-46.
Richter H, 1973. Frictional potential losses and total water potential in plants: a re-evaluation. J Exp Bot 24: 983–994.
Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Domingo R, Savé R, Biel C, Torrecillas A, 1997. Effects of water stress and rewatering on leaf water relations of lemon plants. Biol Plant 39: 623-631.
Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Domingo R, E Pérez-Pastor A, 2007. Daily variations in water relations of apricot trees under different irrigation regimes. Biol Plant 51: 735-740.
Sánchez-Blanco MJ, Torrecillas A, Del Amor F, León A, 1990. The water relations of Verna lemon trees from flowering to the end of rapid fruit growth. Biol Plant 32: 357-363.
Sancho-Knapik D, Álvarez-Arenas TG, Peguero-Pina JJ, Gil-Pelegrin E, 2010. Air-coupled boradband ultrasonic spectroscopy as a new non-invasive and non-contact method for the determination of leaf water status. J Exp Bot 61: 1385-1391.
Schulze ED, Ëemárk J, Matysek R, Penka M, Zimmermann R, Vasícek F, Gries W, Kuéera J, 1985. Canopy transpiration and water fluxes in the xylem of the trunk of Larix and Picea trees-a comparison of xylem flow, porometer and cuvette measurements. Oecologia 66: 475-483.
SPSS, 2002. SPSS Professional Statistics. Business Intelligence Division, v. 12, Chicago, ILL, USA.
Swanson RH, Whitfield DWA, 1981. A numerical analysis of heat pulse velocity theory and practice. J Exp Bot 32: 221-239.
Tenhunen JD, Lange OL, Jahner D, 1982. The control by atmospheric factors and water stress of midday stomatal closure in Arbutus unedo growing in a natural macchia. Oecologia 55: 165-169.
Torrecillas A, Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Del Amor F, León A, 1988. Seasonal variations on water relations of Amygdalus communis L. under drip irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Plant Soil 106: 215-220.
Torrecillas A, Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Hernansáez A, 1989. Response of leaf water potential to estimated transpiration in almond trees. J Hortic Sci 64: 667-671.
Turner NC, 1988. Measurement of plant water status by the pressure chamber technique. Irrig Sci 9: 289-308.
Yakushiji H, Nonami H, Fukuyama T, Ono S, Taragi N, Hashimoto Y, 1996. Sugar accumulation enhanced by osmoregulation in Satsuma mandarin fruit. J Am Soc Hort Sci 121: 466-472.
Zimmermann D, Reuss R, Westhoff M, Gessner P, Bauer W, Bamberg E, Bentup FW, Zimmermann U, 2008. A novel, non-invasive, online-monitoring, versatile and easy plant-based probe for measuring leaf water status. J Exp Bot 59: 3157-3167.
© INIA. Manuscripts published are the property of the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
SJAR is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.