Summer deficit irrigation in a hedgerow olive orchard cv. Arbequina: relationship between soil and tree water status, and growth and yield components
AbstractStem water potential (Phi-stem) is a useful tool for irrigation scheduling in tree crops, provided threshold values for growth and production are determined for each physiological period. Four irrigation treatments were evaluated in a hedgerow olive orchard. Control (CON) was irrigated using soil water sensors to maintain the root zone close to field capacity. Severe water deficits were applied by irrigating at 30% CON from end of fruit drop to end of July (DI-J) or from end of July until beginning of oil synthesis (DI-A). Less severe water deficit was applied in July and August by irrigating at 50% CON (DI-JA). Continuous measures of soil moisture, Phi-stem and shoot length were recorded in all treatments. Fruit dry weight and oil content were measured at the end of the experimental period and at harvest. Relative extractable soil water to 0.8 m depth (REW) and Phi-stem were highly correlated and influenced by irrigation treatment. Shoot growth, fruit characteristics and oil production were correlated to Phi-stem. Shoot growth was reduced by 50% relative to CON by irrigating at Phi-stem of -1.3 MPa. Fruit dry matter and oil content (g fruit-1) were linearly reduced as mean summer Phi-stem decreased. Oil production was highly related with Phi-stem in August but not in July. Water can be saved in July by irrigating at Phi-stem of -2.9 MPa but Phi-stem should be maintained higher than -2.0 MPa in August to prevent decrease of oil production.
Alegre S, Marsal J, Mata M, Arbones A, Girona J, Tovar MJ, 2002. Regulated deficit irrigation in olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. 'Arbequina') for oil production. Acta Hortic 586: 259-262.
Begg JE, Turner NC, 1970. Water potential gradients in field tobacco. Plant Physiol 46: 343-346.
Behboudian MH, Marsal J, Girona J, Lopez G, 2011. Quality and yield responses of deciduous fruits to reduced irrigation. Hortic Rev 38: 149-189.
Chalmers DJ, Burge G, Jerie PH, Mitchell PD, 1986. The mechanism of regulation of Bartlett pear fruit and vegetative growth by irrigation withholding and regulated deficit irrigation. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 111: 904-907.
Connor DJ, Gómez-del-Campo M, 2013. Simulation of oil productivity and quality of N-S oriented olive hedgerow orchards in response to structure and interception of radiation. Sci Hortic 150: 92-99.
Del Río C, Romero AM, 1999. Whole, unmilled olives can be used to determine their oil content by nuclear magnetic resonance. HortTechnology 9: 675-680.
Garnier E, Berger A, 1985. Testing water potential in peach-trees as an indicator of water-stress. J Hortic Sci 60: 47-56.
Goldhamer DA, 1999. Regulated deficit irrigation for California canning olives. Acta Hortic 474: 369-372.
Gomez-del-Campo M, 2013. Summer deficit-irrigation strategies in a hedgerow olive orchard cv. 'Arbequina': effect on fruit characteristics and yield. Irrig Sci 31: 259–269.
Gomez-del-Campo M, Leal A, Pezuela C, 2008. Relationship of stem water potential and leaf conductance to vegetative growth of young olive trees in a hedgerow orchard. Aust J Agric Res 59: 270-279.
Grattan SR, Berenguer MJ, Connell JH, Polito VS, Vossen PM, 2006. Olive oil production as influenced by different quantities of applied water. Agr Water Manage 85: 133-140.
Gucci R, Lodolini E, Rapoport HF, 2007. Productivity of olive trees with different water status and crop load. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 82: 648-656.
Hsiao TC, Acevedo E, Fereres E, Henderson DW, 1976. Water stress, growth, and osmotic adjustment. Philos Trans R Soc London 273(927): 479-500.
Jones HG, 2004. Irrigation scheduling: advantages and pitfalls of plant-based methods. J Exp Bot 55: 2427-2436.
Lavee S, Hanoch E, Wodner M, Abramowitch H, 2007. The effect of predetermined deficit irrigation on the performance of cv. 'Muhasan' olives (Olea europaea L.) in the eastern coastal plain of Israel. Sci Hortic 112: 156-163.
McCutchan H, Shackel KA, 1992. Stem-water potential as a sensitive indicator of water stress in Prune trees (Prunus domestica L. cv. 'French'). J Am Soc Hortic Sci 117: 607-611.
Moriana A, Villalobos FJ, Fereres E, 2002. Stomatal and photosynthetic responses of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves to water deficits. Plant Cell Environ 25: 395-405.
Moriana A, Orgaz F, Pastor M, Fereres E, 2003. Yield responses of a mature olive orchard to water deficits. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 128: 425-431.
Moriana A, Pérez-López D, Prieto MH, Ramírez-Santa-Pau M, Pérez-Rodríguez JM, 2012. Midday stem water potential as a useful tool for estimating irrigation requirements in olive tres. Agr Water Manage 112: 43-54.
Naor A, 2006. Irrigation scheduling and evaluation of tree water status in deciduous orchards. Hortic Rev 32: 111-165.
Naor A, Klein I, Doron I, 1995. Stem water potential and apple fruit size. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 120: 577-582.
Orlandi F, Msallem M, Bonofiglio T, Ben Dhiab A, Sgromo C, Romano B, Fornaciari M, 2010. Relationship between olive flowering and latitude in two Mediterranean countries (Italy and Tunisia). Theor Appl Climatol 102: 265-273.
Pérez-López D, Ribas F, Moriana A, Olmedilla N, de Juan A, 2007. The effect of irrigation schedules on the water relations and growth of a young olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard. Agr Water Manage 89: 297-304.
Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Domingo R, Castel JR, 2010. Review. Deficit irrigation in fruit trees and vines in Spain. Span J Agric Res 8: S5-S20.
Sadras VO, Milroy SP, 1996. Soil-water thresholds for the responses of leaf expansion and gas exchange: a review. Field Crops Res 47: 253-266.
Scholander PF, Hammel HJ, Bradstreet A, Hemmingsen EA, 1965. Sap pressure in vascular plants. Sci 148: 339-346.
Shackel K, Ahmadi H, Biasi W, Buchner R, Goldhamer D, Gurusinghe S, Hasey J, Kester D, Krueger B, Lampinen B et al., 1997. Plant water status as an index of irrigation need in deciduous fruit trees. HortTechnology 7: 23-29.
Sofo A, Manfreda S, Fiorentino M, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C, 2008. The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 12: 293-301.
Tognetti R, d'Andria R, Lavini A, Morelli G, 2006. The effect of deficit irrigation on crop yield and vegetative development of Olea europaea L. (cvs. 'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'). Eur J Agron 25: 356-364.
Trentacoste ER, Sadras VO, Puertas MC, 2011. Effects of the source:sink ratio on the phenotypic plasticity of stem water potential in olive (Olea europaea L.). J Exp Bot 62: 3535-3543.
© CSIC. Manuscripts published are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
SJAR is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.