Online laboratory evaluation of seeding-machine application by an acoustic technique

  • Hadi Karimi University of Tabriz, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. Agricultural Machinery. Tabriz
  • Hossein Navid University of Tabriz, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. Agricultural Machinery. Tabriz
  • Asghar Mahmoudi University of Tabriz, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. Agricultural Machinery. Tabriz
Keywords: seeds spacing, seed detection technique, acoustic system, acoustic signal, impact plate


Researchers and planter manufacturers have been working closely to develop an automated system for evaluating performance of seeding. In the present study, an innovative use of acoustic signal for laboratory evaluation of seeding-machine application is described. Seed detection technique of the proposed system was based on a rising voltage value that a microphone sensed in each impaction of seeds to a steel plate. Online determining of seed spacing was done with a script which was written in MATLAB software. To evaluate the acoustic system with desired seed spacing, a testing rig was designed. Seeds of wheat, corn and pelleted tomato were used as experimental material. Typical seed patterns were positioned manually on a belt stand with different spacing patterns. When the belt was running, the falling seeds from the end point of the belt impacted to the steel plate, and their acoustic signal was sensed by the microphone. In each impact, data was processed and spacing between the seeds was automatically obtained. Coefficient of determination of gathered data from the belt system and the corresponding seeds spacing measured with the acoustic system in all runs was about 0.98. This strong correlation indicates that the acoustic system worked well in determining the seeds spacing.


Download data is not yet available.



Alchanatis V, Kashti Y, Brikman R, 2002. A machine vision system for evaluation of planter seed spatial distribution. CIGR J 4: 11–20.

Anantachar M, Kumar PG, Guruswamy T, 2010. Neural network prediction of performance parameters of an inclined plate seed metering device and its reverse mapping for the determination of optimum design and operational parameters. Comput Electr Agr 72: 87-98.

Brosnan T, Sun DW, 2004. Improving quality inspection of food products by computer vision. A review. J Food Eng 61: 3-16.

Cetin A, Pearson T, Tewfik A, 2004. Classification of closed-and open-shell pistachio nuts using voice-recognition technology. T ASAE 47: 659-664.

Hyndman RJ, 2006. Another look at forecast-accuracy metrics for intermittent demand. Int J Appl Forecast 4: 43-46.

Karayel D, Wiesehoff M, Özmerzi A, Müller J, 2006. Laboratory measurement of seed drill seed spacing and velocity of fall of seeds using high-speed camera system. Comput Electr Agr 50: 89-96.

Karimi H, Navid H, Mahmoudi A, 2012. Detection of damaged seeds in laboratory evaluation of precision planter using impact acoustics and artificial neural networks. Artif Intell Res 1(2): 67-74.

Khalesi S, Mahmoudi A, Hosainpour A, Alipour A, 2012. Detection of walnut varieties using impact acoustics and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Modern Appl Sci 6(1): 43-49.

Kocher MF, Lan Y, Chen C, Smith JA, 1998. Opto-electronic sensor system for rapid evaluation of planter seed spacing uniformity. T ASAE 41(1): 237–245.

Lan Y, Kocher MF, Smith JA, 1999. Opto-electronic sensor system for laboratory measurement of planter seed spacing with small seeds. J Agr Eng Res 72: 119-127.

Li X, Liao Q, Yu J, Shu C, Liao Y, 2012. Dynamic analysis and simulation on sucking process of pneumatic precision metering device for rapeseed. J Food Agr Environ 10: 450-454.

Makridakis S, Wheelwright SC, Hyndman RJ, 2008. Forecasting methods and applications, 3rd ed. Wiley, India. 656 pp.

Mohsenin NN, 1986. Physical properties of plant and animal materials: structure, physical characteristics, and mechanical properties. Gordon & Breach, USA. 891 pp.

Molin J, Bashford L, Von Bargen K, Leviticus L, 1998. Design and evaluation of a punch planter for no-till systems. T ASAE 41: 307-314.

Navid H, Ebrahimian S, Gassemzadeh H, 2011. Laboratory evaluation of seed metering device using image processing method. Aust J Agr Eng 2 (1): 1-4.

Önal İ, Değİrmencİoğlu A, Yazgi A, 2012. An evaluation of seed spacing accuracy of a vacuum type precision metering unit based on theoretical considerations and experiments. Turk J Agr Forest 36: 133-144.

Önal O, & Önal İ. 2009. Development of a computerized measurement system for in-row seed spacing accuracy. Turk J Agr Forest 33(2): 99-109.

Panning JW, 1997. Seed spacing performance for general purpose and specialty type sugarbeet planters. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA.

Panning JW, Kocher MF, Smith JA, Kachman SD, 2000. Laboratory and field testing of seed spacing uniformity for sugarbeet planters. Appl Eng Agr 16(1): 7–13.

Pearson T, 2001. Detection of pistachio nuts with closed shells using impact acoustics. Appl Eng Agr 17: 249-253.

Pearson TC, Cetin AE, Tewfik AH, 2005. Detection of insect damaged wheat kernels by impact acoustics. Proc. IEEE Int Conf Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP'05). Vol 5, pp: 659-664.

Singh R, Singh G, Saraswat D, 2005. Optimisation of design and operational parameters of a pneumatic seed metering device for planting cottonseeds. Biosyst Eng 92: 429-438.

Singh TP, Chatli MK, Singh P, Kumar P, 2013. Advances in computer vision technology for foods of animal and aquatic origin (a). J Meat Sci Technol 1: 40-49.

Taghinezhad J, Alimardani R, Jafary A, 2013. Design a capacitive sensor for rapid monitoring of seed rate of sugarcane planter. Agr Eng Int: CIGR Journal 15(4): 23-29.

Toolbox, 2010. User's Guide, The MathWorks. Inc.: Natick, MA, USA.

Yasir SH, Liao Q, Yu J, He D, 2012. Design and test of a pneumatic precision metering device for wheat. Agr Eng Int: CIGR Journal 14: 16-25.

Zhan Z, Yaoming L, Jin C, Lizhang X, 2010. Numerical analysis and laboratory testing of seed spacing uniformity performance for vacuum-cylinder precision seeder. Biosyst Eng 106: 344-351.

How to Cite
KarimiH., NavidH., & MahmoudiA. (2015). Online laboratory evaluation of seeding-machine application by an acoustic technique. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 13(1), e0202.
Agricultural engineering