Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

  • Luisa Martelloni University of Pisa. Centro di Ricerche Agro-Ambientali “Enrico Avanzi” (CiRAA). Via Vecchia di Marina, 6. 56122 San Piero a Grado (Pisa)
  • Christian Frasconi University of Pisa. Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Environment (DAFE). Via del Borghetto, 80. 56124 Pisa
  • Marco Fontanelli University of Pisa. Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Environment (DAFE). Via del Borghetto, 80. 56124 Pisa
  • Michele Raffaelli University of Pisa. Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Environment (DAFE). Via del Borghetto, 80. 56124 Pisa
  • Andrea Peruzzi University of Pisa. Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Environment (DAFE). Via del Borghetto, 80. 56124 Pisa
Keywords: agricultural engineering, cultivation, flamer, low-competitive crop, organic farming, Phaseolus vulgaris L., physical management

Abstract

Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Amador-Ramirez MD, Wilson RG, Martin AR, 2002. Effect of in-row cultivation, herbicides, and dry bean canopy on weed seedling emergence. Weed Sci 50: 370-377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0370:EOIRCH]2.0.CO;2

Ascard J, 1995. Effects of flame weeding on weed species at different developmental stages. Weed Res 35(5): 397-411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.1995.tb01636.x

Avola G, Tuttobene R, Gresta F, Abbate V, 2008. Weed control strategies for grain legumes. Agron Sustain Dev 28:389-395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/agro:2008019

Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S, 2014. lme4: linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4. [20 April 2015].

Boyd NS, Brennan EB, Fennimore SA, 2006. Stale seedbed techniques for organic vegetable production. Weed Technol 20(4): 1052-1057. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WT-05-109.1

Burnside OC, Wiens MJ, Krause NH, Holder BJ, Weisberg S, Ristau EA, Johnson MM, Sheets RA 1998a. Mechanical and chemical weed control systems for kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Weed Sci 46: 301-306.

Burnside OC, Wiens MJ, Holder BJ, Weisberg S, Ristau EA, Johnson MM et al., 1998b. Critical period for weed control in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Weed Sci 46: 301-306.

Cirujeda A, Melander B, Rasmussen K, Rasmussen IA, 2003. Relationship between speed, soil movement into cereal row and intra-row weed control efficacy by weed harrowing. Weed Res 43: 285-296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3180.2003.00345.x

Colquhoun JB, Bellinder RR, Kirkwyland JJ, 1999. Efficacy of mechanical cultivation with and without herbicides in broccoli (Brassica oleracea), snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and sweet corn (Zea mais). Weed Technol 13: 244-252.

Feller C, Bleiholder L, Buhr L, Hack H, Hess M, Klose R, Meier U, Strauss R, van der Boom T, Weber E, 1995. Phänologische Entwicklungsstadien von Gemüsepflanzen: II. Fruchtgemüse und Hülsenfrüchte. Nachrichtenbl Deut Pflanzenschutzd 47: 217-232.

Fontanelli M, Raffaelli M, Martelloni L, Frasconi C, Peruzzi A, 2013. The influence of non-living mulch, mechanical and thermal treatments on weed population and yield of rainfed fresh-market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Span J Agric Res 11(3): 593-602. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2013113-3394

Fontanelli M, Martelloni L, Raffaelli M, Frasconi C, Ginanni M, Peruzzi A, 2015. Weed management in autumn fresh market spinach: a nonchemical alternative. HortTechnology 25(2): 177-184.

Frasconi C, Martelloni L, Fontanelli M, Raffaelli M, Emmi L, Pirchio M, Peruzzi A, 2014. Design and full realization of physical weed control (PWC) automated machine within the RHEA Project. Proc. 2th Intl Conf on Robotics and associated High-technologies and Equipment for Agriculture and forestry (RHEA-2014). pp. 3-11. PGM, Madrid.

Graham PH, Ranalli P, 1997. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Field Crops Res 53: 131-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(97)00112-3

Knezevic SZ, Streibig JC, Ritz C, 2007. Utilizing R software package for dose-response studies: the concept and data analysis. Weed Technol 21(3): 840-848. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WT-06-161.1

Knezevic SZ, Stepanovic S, Datta A, Nedeljkovic D, Tursun N, 2013. Soybean yield and yield components as influenced by the single and repeated flaming. Crop Prot 50: 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.03.014

Kuznetsova A, Brockhoff PB, Christensen RHB, 2014. lmerTest: Tests for random and fixed effects for linear mixed effect models. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lmerTest. [20 April 2015].

Melander B, Rasmussen IA, Bàrberi P, 2005. Integrating physical and cultural methods of weed control- examples from European research. Weed Sci 53: 369-381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WS-04-136R

Melander B, Lattanzi B, Panacci E, 2015. Intelligent versus non-intelligent mechanical intra-row weed control in transplanted onion and cabbage. Crop Prot 72: 1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.02.017

Mojžiš M, 2002. Energetic requirements of flame weed control. Res Agr Eng 48: 94-97.

OJ, 2009a. Regulation (EC) no. 1107 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Off J Eur Union L309: 1-47.

OJ, 2009b. Directive/128/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. Off J Eur Union L309: 71-86.

Pérez-Ruiz M, Gonzalez-de-Santos P, Ribeiro A, Fernandez-Quintanilla C, Peruzzi A, Vieri M, Tomic S, Agüera J, 2015. Highlights and preliminary results for autonomous crop protection. Comput Electron Agr 110: 150-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2014.11.010

Peruzzi A, Ginanni M, Fontanelli M, Raffaelli M, Bàrberi P, 2007. Innovative strategies for on-farm weed management in organic carrot. Renew Agr Food Syst 22(4): 246-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1742170507001810

R Core Team, 2013. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria.

Raffaelli M, Martelloni L, Frasconi C, Fontanelli M, Peruzzi A, 2013. Development of machines for flaming weed control on hard surfaces. Appl Eng Agric 29(5): 663-673.

Ritz C, Streibig JC, 2005. Bioassay analysis using R. J Stat Softw 12(5): 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.18637/jss.v012.i05

Royston P, 1995. Remark AS R94: A remark on Algorithm AS 181: The W test for normality. Appl Stat 44: 547-551. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2986146

Rueda-Ayala V, Rasmussen J, Gherards R, 2010. Mechanical weed control. In: Precision crop protection – The challenge and use of heterogeneity. pp: 279-294. Springer, Netherlands. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9277-9_17

Russell VL, Hervé M, 2015. lsmeans: Least-Squares Means. R package version 2.16. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lsmeans. [20 April 2015].

Seefeldt SS, Jensen JE, Fuerst EP, 1995. Log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose-response relationships. Weed Technol 9(2): 218-227.

Siddique KHM, Johansen C, Turner NC, Jeuffroy MH, Hashem A, Sakar D, Gan Y, Alghamdi SS, 2012. Innovations in agronomy for food legumes. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 32: 45-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13593-011-0021-5

Sikkema PH, Vyn RD, Shropshire C, Soltani N, 2008. Integrated weed management in white bean production. Can J Plant Sci 88: 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/CJPS07180

Sivesind EC, Leblanc ML, Cloutier DC, Seguin P, Stewart KA, 2012. Impact of selective flame weeding on onion yield, pungency, flavonoid concentration, and weeds. Crop Prot 39: 45-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2012.03.009

Stefanic E, Stefanic I, Murdoch AJ, 2003. Economic analysis of integrated weed management in field bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plant Soil Environ 49(4):183-189.

Stefanic E, Stefanic I, Murdoch AJ, 2005. Response of weed community to different management practice in field bean. J Plant Dis Prot 112(5): 437-446.

Taylor EC, Renner KA, Sprague CL, 2012. Organic weed management in field crops with a propane flamer and rotary hoe. Weed Technol 26: 793-799. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-12-00035.1

Tharanathan RN, Mahadevamma S, 2003. Grain legumes - A boon to human nutrition. Trends Food Sci Tech 14: 507-518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2003.07.002

van der Weide RY, Bleeker PO, Achten VTJM, Lotz LAP, Fogelberg F, Melander B. 2008. Innovation in mechanical weed control in crop rows. Weed Res 48: 215-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2008.00629.x

Vangessel MJ, Wiles LJ, Schweizer EE, Westa P, 1995. Weed control efficacy and pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) tolerance to early season mechanical weeding. Weed Technol 9: 531-534.

Vangessel MJ, Schweizer EE, Wilson RG, Wiles LJ, Westa P, 1998. Impact of timing and frequency of in-row cultivation for weed control in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Weed Technol 12: 548-553.

Wheeler MW, Park RM, Bailer AJ, 2005. Comparing median lethal concentration values using confidence interval overlap or ratio test. Environ Toxicol Chem 25(5): 1441-1444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/05-320R.1

Published
2016-03-02
How to Cite
MartelloniL., FrasconiC., FontanelliM., RaffaelliM., & PeruzziA. (2016). Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 14(1), e0203. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2016141-7976
Section
Agricultural engineering